DSAE test file

burgher, noun

Forms:
Also burgar, burger, and with initial capital.
Origin:
Dutch, English, Show more Dutch. Cf. English burger borrowed during the 16th century from Dutch burger.
1. In historical contexts.
a. A Dutch colonist at the Cape, especially under the Dutch East India Company; a townsman, with all the rights and duties of a citizen. Also attributive. See also Boer sense 2, free burgher.
Note:
Also used by the Dutch in Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
1731 G. Medley tr. of P. Kolben’s Present State of Cape of G.H. I. 45The Directors put a Stop to all Commerce with the Hottentots on the Company’s Account; and ordered that all Supplies of Provisions for them should be bought up among their own Burgers at the Cape.
1988 D. Hughes et al. Complete Bk of S. Afr. Wine 190Louis Michel Thibault..abandoned a career as a designer of military fortifications to devote himself to the graceful embellishment of the local Burgher architecture.
b. combinations
burgher councillor, burgher senator (see burgher senate) .
1952 G.M. Mills First Ladies of Cape 24There had been an official welcome attended by the burgher councillors, officials and members of the burgher militia.
1976 G. & G. Fagan in Optima Vol.26 No.2, 70He was by now prominent in the community; serving as burgher councillor, captain in the burgher cavalry and as a member of the church council.
2. A citizen; in mod. usage, often ironic.
1819 H. Ellis in G.M. Theal Rec. of Cape Col. (1902) XII. 350Our English Burghers would no doubt equal their Dutch fellow Colonists in courage, and would have stronger motives for loyalty to the paramount, which to them would be the mother country.
1991 R. Minogue in Frontline May 20A lot of people smoke dope, including otherwise law-abiding, tax-paying burghers.
3. In historical contexts.
a. A civilian member of a local militia unit, mounted, armed, and usually without formal uniform; (influenced by sense 4) a Boer soldier, see quotation 1900. See also commando sense 1 a and 4. Also attributive.
1828 W. Shaw Diary. 5 JulyArrived safely at Mount Coke last night, and heard that Major Dundas with fifty Burghers had left this place for the interior on Friday.
a1951 H.C. Bosman Willemsdorp (1977) 95That was how the men of his people had ridden to war half-a-century ago — Transvaal Boers and Free State Boers and Cape rebels — a handful of burghers ranging in age from schoolboys to octogenarians, with no uniform but their farm clothes.
b. comb.
burgher camp, concentration camp; also attributive;
burgher duty, military service demanded of citizens;
burgher force, a militia or citizen army whose members could be called on to act together in their own region for purposes of mutual defence (see quotation 1846).
1902 Postmark, MiddelburgBurgher Camp 24 Feb. 1902 Middelburg.
1976 D.M.B. Preston Story of Frontier Town 10In 1828 the Fetcani were defeated and dispersed by a Burgher force under Colonel Somerset at Umtata.
4. In historical contexts. An (Afrikaans) citizen of a Boer Republic. Cf. uitlander noun sense b.
1882 C.L. Norris-Newman With Boers in Tvl 48He had never been able to check the constant warfare going on between the Basutos on the one hand, and the Baralong and the Burghers on the other.
1982 Sunday Times 4 Apr. 23Plans are afoot to commemorate these and other Anglo-Boer War heroes. At an unveiling ceremony last week, maquettes of the ‘banneling’, the ‘burgher’, the ‘bittereinder’, and the ‘agterryer’, were shown.
A Dutch colonist at the Cape, especially under the Dutch East India Company; a townsman, with all the rights and duties of a citizen. Also attributive.
, burgher senatorburgher senate
A citizen; in mod. usage, often ironic.
A civilian member of a local militia unit, mounted, armed, and usually without formal uniform; (influenced by 4) a Boer soldier, see quotation 1900.
An (Afrikaans) citizen of a Boer Republic.
Derivatives:
Hence (sense 4) burgheress noun  historical, a female burgher; (sense 1 a and 2) burghership noun, the status or condition, rights, and privileges of citizenship; (sense 1 a and 3) burghery noun  historical, burghers collectively.
1807 Earl of Caledon in G.M. Theal Rec. of Cape Col. (1900) VI. 244Letters of Burghership.
1901 C.G. Dennison Fight to Finish (1904) 90Dear burgheresses, pray for your husbands, encourage them to go to the front.

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17311991